To improve understanding a few basics: The world hungers for energy. We are exploiting every conceivable fossil resource, with catastrophic consequences. The associated CO 2 input into the atmosphere heats up our climate. Experts have long warned of the existential consequences of global warming. With a lot of luck, we still have a few more years to avert the worst. What is the right way out of this dilemma? With   the   massive   expansion   of   photovoltaics   and   wind   turbines,   attempts   are   being   made   to   replace   fossil fuels. This    form    of    energy    production    has    the    disadvantage    that    it    fluctuates    very    strongly    -    the    energy    is sometimes high and sometimes low. This is not the way to build a stable, reliable power supply. Every   electricity   grid   needs   power   plants   that   supply   reliable   electricity   24/7   (day   and   night).   These   power plants are called base-load power plants. The    base-load    power    plants    commonly    used    today    are    steam-driven    power    plants    that    use    different propellants. The propellants used to generate steam can be: Coal Brown coal Gas Diesel oil Atomic fission The   first   four   fuels   are   not   sustainable,   they   emit   large   amounts   of   CO 2    into   the   atmosphere   and   heat   up   the climate. Atomic   fission   is   extremely   dangerous   and   has   the   major   problem   of   final   disposal   of   waste   -   1   million   years until the lethal radiation has subsided. The consequence is that all these fuels fail for future power supply. How   could   sustainable   CO 2 -free   base-load   power   plants   be   operated   in   the   future   if   they   are   to   replace   the huge amount of energy from previous base-load power plants? There is only one answer - Solar Energy! The only solar power plants that are capable of base load are thermal solar power plants. Thermo-solar power plants can guarantee a stable 24/7 power supply. A simple, inexpensive heat storage technology makes electricity production possible even at night. Like   any   conventional   steam   power   plant,   the   power   generation   can   be   regulated   so   that   they   are   the   ideal supplement for the strongly fluctuating power generation from wind turbines and photovoltaics. Thermo-solar   power   plants   are   constructed   in   a   useful   way   where   permanent   solar   radiation   takes   place   -   in the desert. The deserts of our earth receive in 6 hours more energy, as the whole mankind needs in the year. This energy is cost-free, CO2 free for the next billions of years! Thermo-solar   power   plants   with   a   surplus   heat   storage   tank   generate   adjustable   electricity   24   hours   a   day and work up to 7.000 hours a year under full load. This is comparable to conventional nuclear power plants. Thermo-solar    power    plants    are    therefore    not    only    the    only    alternative,    they    are    also    the    ideal alternative. The   ideal   locations   for   thermal   solar   power   plants   are   in   the   desert.   However,   deserts   are   usually   far   away from places where large amounts of energy are needed. The transmission of large amounts of energy over long distances is no longer a problem. Ultra-high-voltage DC lines today transmit up to 13 GW of power  at 1.100 kV (1.100.000 Volts). 13 GW corresponds to the output of approx. 13 medium-sized nuclear power plants! Due to the extremely high voltage, the power loss at 3.000 KM is only approx. 12%. Another   great   advantage   of   this   cable   is   that   the   current   is   transmitted   with   DC   and   thus   does   not   generate any radiation. In   contrast   to   pipe   lines,   the   cable   is   easy   to   lay   and   inexpensive   to   operate   as   it   is   not   subject   to   any maintenance costs. This form of power transmission makes power production locally independent of the power consumer. A   very   interesting   question   is   -   how   much   space   does   it   take   to   generate   electricity   in   the   desert   with thermosolar power plants for the whole world or for the whole of Europe? In the short film you can see how surprisingly small the required areas are.
The size comparison of an Ultra High Voltage DC Power Line with the pipe of the North Stream Gas Pipeline makes clear why the installation of a gas pipeline is so much more complex and expensive than that of an Ultra Ultra High Voltage DC Power Line.
System Comparison: At the moment, trough power plants and tower power plants are mainly used. Trough power plants consist of mirror fields from mirror troughs that track the sun. The receiver pipe is located in the concentration line. In this, thermal oil or water vapour circulates. The steam then drives a steam turbine again in the classic way. The problems of a trough power plant: As   you   can   see   very   impressively   on   the   picture,   the   effort   to   build   such   trough-shaped   mirrors   is   very high.   The   mirror   substructure   has   to   be   extremely   stiff   without   becoming   too   heavy,   because   the   mirrors have to be turned around their longitudinal axis to follow the sun. The   fact   that   the   mirror   precision   is   only   very   inadequate   can   be   seen   from   the   distortions   on   the   mirror surface. A   high   precision   of   the   mirrors   is   a   task   that   can   hardly   be   solved   even   during   assembly,   without external loads such as wind. In addition, there are the extreme maintenance costs associated with large solar fields. No automatic monitoring of the mirror fields, whether mirrors are destroyed, dirty or de-focused. The   picture   shows   -   the   cleaning   of   the   huge   mirror   field   is   a   real   challenge   and   a   real   Sisyphus   work. A complete   cleaning   of   the   gutter   mirrors   is   prevented   by   the   centrally   arranged,   sensitive   and   expensive receiver tubes. Cleaning   is   not   only   a   permanent   expense,   but   also   the   consumption   of   fuel   for   the   cleaning   vehicles and   very   decisively   the   consumption   of   large   quantities   of   demineralized   water.   Demineralized   water   is necessary   so   that   there   are   no   mineral   deposits   on   the   mirrors,   which   would   burn   on   the   surface   in   the intense sun. Trough   power   plants   require   huge   areas   of   land   that   have   to   be   fenced   against   vandalism   -   a   fence   that could also keep the direct wind away from the plant would be better. The   mirror   constructions   are   the   neuralgic   points;   this   increases   disproportionately   with   increasing operating time and size. The trough power plants are very expensive to manufacture, assemble and operate. The   problems   are   system   related   and   can   certainly   be   reduced   by   high   quantities,   but   they   are   system immanent. Thermo-Solar-Tower-Power Plants Tower power station - many so-called heliostats are erected around a receiver tower set up in the middle, here 140m high. Heliostats are flat mirrors that are mounted on a mechanism that constantly tracks the position of the sun and thus focuses the sunlight on a point at the top of the tower. The concentrated solar radiation is directed in such a way that it hits the receiver at the head of the tower. Up   to   1,000°   Celsius   is   generated   at   the   receiver,   this   heat   generates   steam   that   classically   drives   a   steam turbine. The problems of a tower power plants: The life span of the Receivers is quite limited, since the extreme warmth leads to fast material wear. Numerous   heliostats   must   be   built   around   the   tower.   In   this   power   station,   for   example,   there   are 300,000 mirrors. These   mirrors   are   not   static,   but   they   have   to   be   guided   very   precisely   towards   the   sun,   for   this   you need a very stiff supporting structure on which the mirrors are mounted. Each   of   these   mirrors   needs   a   very   complex   sun   tracking   system,   which   the   heliostats   exactly   follow   the sun - and that means for each heliostat, an extremely complex mechanics. High   maintenance   effort,   since   the   many   thousands   of   individual   Heliostats   are   always   subject   to electronic    and    mechanical    failures.   This    increases    exponentially    with    the    age    of    the    system.   The conditions in the desert are very bad for precise and complex mechanics. High   maintenance   and   cleaning   costs   for   hundreds   of   thousands   of   heliostat   mirrors   -   extreme consumption of demineralized water - where there is no water. The   Heliostats   stand   on   a   "mono-foot",   which   has   to   absorb   all   loads,   especially   wind   loads,   without   de- adjusting. Desert   storms   are   a   real   challenge   for   heliostats,   in   two   respects,   on   the   one   hand   the   wind   loads   and on   the   other   hand   the   high   abrasion   on   the   mirrors   by   the   sand,   which   rubs   with   high   dynamics   over   on the mirrors. Trough   power   plants   and   tower   power   plants   have   mirror   systems   that   are   too   expensive   to   manufacture, assemble and maintain. The   life   span   of   the   complicated   filigree   mirror   systems   does   not   correspond   to   the   long   depreciation   period that thermal solar power plants need to be profitable. In   order   to   improve   the   system   related   problems,   one   tries   to   improve   the   efficiency   of   the   trough   and   tower power plants. One   way   is   to   increase   the   temperature   at   the   receiver,   but   this   is   at   the   expense   of   the   cost   and   life   of   the heat-carrying systems. High-tech materials are always needed to cope with extreme temperatures. The service life of the materials is considerably shortened by the extreme temperatures. It   is   tried   with   more   and   more   high-tech   to   optimize   the   mirror   systems,   but   this   does   not   eliminate   the   basic problems, as already described. We're going the exact opposite way. We   are   of   the   opinion   that   the   mirror   systems   must   be   inexpensive   in   manufacture,   construction   and maintenance. In addition, they must be absolutely robust, with an extreme service life. If   the   mirror   systems   have   all   these   advantages,   you   don't   need   an   optimized   efficiency,   because   the decisive factor is the nominal output of the power plant. If   the   efficiency   is   somewhat   lower,   the   inexpensive   mirror   field   is   simply   built   somewhat   larger   so   that   the nominal power is achieved.