Concrete: the most  destructive material on Earth
After Water, Concrete is the most widely used Substance on the Planet. But its Benefits mask enormous Dangers to the Planet, to Human Health – and to Culture itself.
In   the   Time   it   takes   you   to   Read   this   Sentence,   the   Global   Building   Industry   will   have   poured   more   than   19.000 Bathtubs  of Concrete. By the Time you are halfway through this Article, the Volume would fill the Albert Hall and spill out into Hyde Park. In a Day  it would be almost the Size of China’s Three Gorges Dam . In a single Year,  there is enough to Patio over every Hill, Dale, Nook and Cranny in England . After   Water,   Concrete   is   the   most   widely   used   Substance   on   Earth.   If   the   Cement   Industry   were   a   Country,   it   would   be the third largest Carbon Dioxide Emitter in the world with up to 2.8bn Tonnes , surpassed only by China and the US . The   Material   is   the   Foundation   of   modern   Development,   putting   Roofs   over   the   Heads   of   billions,   fortifying   our   defences against natural Disaster and providing a Structure for Healthcare, Education, Transport, Energy and Industry. Concrete   is   how   we   try   to   tame   Nature.   Our   Slabs   Protect   us   from   the   Elements.   They   keep   the   Rain   from   our   Heads, the   Cold   from   our   Bones   and   the   Mud   from   our   Feet.   But   they   also   entomb   vast   Tracts   of   fertile   Soil,   constipate   Rivers, choke   Habitats   and   –   acting   as   a   rock-hard   second   Skin   –   desensitise   us   from   what   is   happening   Outside   our   Urban Fortresses. Our   blue   and   green   World   is   becoming   greyer   by   the   Second.   By   one   calculation,   we   may   have   already   passed   the   Point where Concrete outweighs the combined Carbon Mass of every Tree, Bush and Shrub on the Planet. Our   built   Environment   is,   in   these   Terms,   outgrowing   the   Natural   one.   Unlike   the   natural   World,   however,   it   does   not actually Grow. Instead, its chief Quality is to harden and then degrade, extremely slowly. This is a Report from the „theguardian“ here you come to the whole report. Under this Links you will find more interesting Articles on the Topic: Concrete is Tipping us into Climate Catastrophe. It's Payback-Time The grey Wall of China: inside the World's Concrete Superpower
Before we come to the Solutions of this imesense Problem, a short Study of the Chinese is prefaced: A   Chinese   Institute   has   come   to   the   Conclusion   that   in   China   Concrete   has   already   broken   down   part   of   the   CO 2    from the Atmosphere. This was tested and confirmed by a German Institute. The   Reason   for   this   Fact   is   based   on   the   Fact   that   Concrete   absorbs   some   CO 2    from   the Air   again   when   it   Decomposes and   the   large Amount   of   CO 2    absorbed   by   Chinese   Concrete   is   due   to   the   incredibly   poor   Quality   of   the   Concrete,   which crumbles in a very short Time. This cannot be the solution. There are 3 Approaches which, when combined, can solve the Problem. The   simple,   quick   Solution   is   to   use   a   Construction   Method   that   requires   up   to   20   times   less   Concrete,   such   as   the SOTA-DOMUS Technique. In   the   Production   of   Cement,   CO 2    is   released   at   two   Points,   first   by   burning   fossil   Fuels,   alternatively   by   burning   Waste Materials. The second Point is the Calcification Process itself, which emits as much CO 2 as the Heating Process. If   we   did   the   Heating   Electrically,   we   would   not   only   have   saved   50% CO 2     Input,    but    the    Process    Control    of    the    Calcination    could    be significantly more Precise and Easier. If   the   Rotary-Furnaces   is   operated   closed,   which   is   Possible   with   an Electric   Heater,   the   Resulting   CO 2    could   be   extracted   and   would   be Available for further use. Since   Cement-Plants   move   large   Volumes,   it   is   necessary   to   have the    Rotary-Furnaces    wherever    the    Raw    Material    is,    but    through purchase    Contracts,    even    distant    Cement-Factories    can    use    the inexpensive, CO 2  free Solar-Power.
The third Solution - the high end Solution
This   new   Process   is   able   to   Produce   Cement   completely   CO 2    neutral   if   CO 2    neutral   Electricity   were   used   for   the Electrolysis. This innovative Process is currently still in the Laboratory Stage, but could become a Key-Technology.