There are 3 different types of thermal solar power plants. Tower-Power-Plant Trough-Power-Plant Fresnel-Power-Plant
Tower -Power-Plant   -   around   a   receiver   tower   set   up   in   the   middle,   here   140m   high ,   many   thousands    of   so-called Heliostats are built. Heliostats    are   flat   Mirrors   that   are   mounted   on   a   c omplex   Mechanism    that   constantly   guides   the   Mirror-Surfaces according to the position of the Sun and thus focuses the Sunlight on one Point. The concentrated Solar-Radiation is directed in such a way that it hits the Receiver at the Head of the Tower. Up to 1.000° Celsius  is generated at the Receiver , this Heat generates Steam that classically drives a Steam-Turbine. The problems of a tower power plant: The Life-Span  of the Receiver is quite limited , since the extreme Heat-Leads to fast Material-Wear. Numerous   Heliostats   have   to   be   built   around   the   tower.   In   this   power   station,   for   example,   there   are   300,000 mirrors. The Costs for the Heliostat-Mirrors  amount to more than 80%  of the total Investment . These   Mirrors   are   not   static,   but   they   have   to   be   guided   very   precisely   towards   the   Sun,   which   requires   a   very stiff Supporting-Structure on which the Mirrors are mounted. Each   of   these   Mirrors   needs   a   very   complex   Sun-Tacking-System ,   which   the   Heliostats   exactly   follow   the   Sun     and this is for each Heliostat , extremely complex in Construction. High   Maintenance   effort,    since   the   many   thousands   of   individual   Heliostats    are   always   subject   to   Electronic and Mechanical Failures . This   increases   exponentially    with   the   Age   of   the   System . The   general   Conditions   in   the   Desert   are   very   bad   for   a complex mechanics.
High maintenance   effort when Cleaning the heliostats  - Extreme Water-Consumption - where there is no Water. The Heliostats stand on a "Mono-Foot" , which has to absorb all loads, especially wind loads, without De-Adjusting. Desert   Storms   are   a   real   Challenge   for   Heliostats,   in   two   respects,   on   the   one   hand   the   Wind-Loads   and   on   the other hand the high Abrasion  on the Mirrors by the Sand, which rubs with very high Dynamics over on the Mirrors.
The   Trough -Power-Plant   consists   of   giant   Trough-Shaped   Mirrors    with   a   Line-Shaped   Receiver-Tube    in   the Centre. Thermal   Oil   circulates   in   the   receiver   pipe;   in   newer   Systems,   Steam   is   also   generated   directly   in   the   Receiver-Pipes   - the Steam has a Temperature of up to 550° Celsius. The Steam then drives a Steam-Turbine in the traditional Way.
The Problems of a Trough-Power-Plant: As you can see very impressively on the Picture, the effort to build  such Trough-Shaped-Mirrors is very high . The   mirror   substructure   has   to   be   extremely   rigid    without   becoming   too   heavy,   because   the   Mirrors   have   to   be rotated around their longitudinal Axis to follow the Sun. On   the   Picture   you   can   see   very   well   how   distorted   the   mirror   image,   because   the   Substructure   is   not   precise enough. Distorted Mirrors cost Performance. The Precision of the Mirrors is an unsolvable task , even during assembly, without external loads such as wind. This brings us to the extreme Mechanical Maintenance-Costs  associated with a large Solar-Field . Constant maintenance work on the filigree supporting structure. No automatic Monitoring  of the Mirror-Field , whether Mirrors are destroyed, dirty or defocused.
As   you   can   see   very   impressively   on   the   Picture,   the   Cleaning   of   the   huge   Mirror-Field    is   a   r eal   Sisyphus   Work . The   Cleaning   can   only   be   done   partially,   because   the   sensitive   and   very   expensive   Receiver-Tubes   in   the   middle   of the Trough - Mirrors prevent a complete cleaning. Cleaning   is   not   only   a   permanent   Expense,   but   also   the   Consumption   of   Fuel   for   the   Cleaning-Vehicles    and   very decisively   the   Consumption   of   large   Quantities   of   demineralized   Water .   Demineralized   Water   is   necessary   so that   there   are   no   mineral   Deposits   on   the   Mirrors,   these   would   burn   themselves   with   the   intensive   Sun   on   the Surface. Both   Power-Plant-Systems   require   huge   Areas   of   Land   that   need   to   be   fenced   in   as   far   as   possible   to   protect   the plant - a better option would be a fence that would also keep the direct wind away from the plant. In    both    Systems,    the    Mirror-Constructions    are    neuralgic    Points,     and    this    increases    disproportionately    with increasing Operating-Time. The Trough-Power-Plants , as well as the Tower-Power-Plants , are expensive to Manufacture and in Operation . The problems are system related and can be safely reduced by high quantities, but will basically remain.
This Decision-Matrix shows why we chose Fresnel-Solar-Power-Plants
The Fresnel-Power-Plant
Light Focussing Line-Mirror Receiver
The Pictures show the impressively simple Technology of the Fresnel-Power-Plants. The Line-Mirrors are suspended from their longitudinal Axes and rigidly connected to the next Mirror. Thus a powerful Drive drives many Mirrors at the same time. This saves technical Effort and the simple Mechanics can be designed to run extremely smoothly for a long Time. The Mirror-Mechanism is connected to a simple but effective feedback Technology, so if a Mechanism should fail, it is indicated at the same Moment in the Control-Centre which defect is present where. The Repair can be quickly repaired without expensive Cranes or other complex tool.
The simple Flat-Mirror Construction is ideal for automating the Cleaning and Monitoring.
During the Night, the Mirrors are rotated 180°  - so they are in the Protection and Maintenance-Position. During   the   Night,   the   Maintenance-Robots   drive   past   the   downward   facing   Mirrors   and   clean   them   with   a   very   effective Ultrasonic-Cleaning-System (patent pending) . The   Water   is   already   reclaimed,   filtered   and   constantly   reused   during   the   Cleaning-Process   -   a   continuous   cycle   that permits virtually no Water-Loss . The Water-Consumption is negligible even with the huge Mirror-Surfaces to be cleaned. By   the   automatic,   careful   Cleaning   of   the   Mirror-Fields,   this   procedure   can   take   place   each   Night   and   the   mirrors   always have the o ptimal Reflection Degree . The   Cleaning-Robot   has   a   further   function   in   addition   to   Cleaning. After   the   Cleaning-Process   the   Mirror   is   scanned   over an ultra fast Optics and the Degree of Reflection of the cleaned Mirror is Measured . Any Defects are detected immediately  and reported to the Control-Center . This   type   of   fully   automatic   Maintenance   of   the   Solar-Mirrors   guarantees   a   permanent   performance   readiness   of almost 100%.
The static Receivers above the Mirror-Fields are also maintained by cleaning and monitoring Robots. These Robots also perform the dual function of cleaning and scanning. Thus,   the   entire   Mirror-Field   is   automatically   cleaned   and   monitored,   without   the   help   of   humans   and   without the Consumption of Water - this is what we understand by sustainability. In   addition   to   Environmental-Protection,   this   form   of   maintenance   means   that   the   Solar-Fields   are always in top condition and the Maintenance Effort is extremely reduced.
During the development of our Fresnel-Power-Plants, we have followed the Wisdom of Albert Einstein
You have to make Things as simple as possible. - but not simpler!
So   we   kept   the   Construction   very   simple ,   but   used   the   most   modern   Materials   and   the   smartest Developments. On   the   Picture   you   can   see   the   Structure   of   a   Line-Mirror.   The   Surface   supporting   Structure   forms   a   high- performance Honeycomb that can withstand a Surface-Load of 200 tons per m² . In   an   automatic   Process   for   which   a   patent   has   been   applied,   a   nanostructured   Cold-Hardening   Mineral   is cast   on   both   Sides,   which   ensures   incomparable   rigidity   and   longevity.   The   MIT    (Massachusetts   Institute   of Technology),   after   examining   the   Surface   course   Material,   came   to   the   Conclusion   that   it   is   one   of   the   most durable Materials and should last at least 1.000 Years . The    Thin-Film-Mirrors,    0.5    mm    thick,    are    bonded    directly    to    the    Mineral-Surface    by    means    of    high- performance   multi-layer   Adhesive   film   under   vacuum.   This   ensures   that   the   Mirrors   are   always   optimally bonded to the Mineral-Surface Layer. Since   the   Mineral-Surface   Layer   and   the   Mineral   Mirror   Glass   have   identical   Thermal-Expansion,   there   can be no detachment stresses between the two Materials. The   Thin-Film-Mirror   is   optimally   protected   by   the   direct   Contact   and   the   two-dimensional   Bonding,   because Mirror and Cover-Layer form an extremely stable unit. Even   partial   Impact,   such   as   a   Projectile,   can   only   cause   the   smallest   Damage,   as   the   mirror   cannot   splinter due to the Surface-Bonding. The   Construction   described   here   leads   to   inexpensive,   very   precise   and   extremely   durable   Solar-Mirror- Systems.   There   is   no   Corrosion   and   other   Destruction   that   can   occur   due   to   the   special   Weather   Conditions in the Desert.
A very important Aspect in the Production of the Millions of Line-Mirrors required is automatic Production, preferably on site.
Here   you   can   see   the   Design   of   a   fully   automatic   Production-Line,   which   is   able   to   produce   Line-Mirrors   for   a   solar surface annually, for 200 MW el . In order to guarantee a 24/7 basic supply, you need double the area. With   10   automatic   Production-Lines    one   could   produce   each   Year   the   Line-Mirrors ,   which   would   be   necessary   for           1 Nuclear-Power-Plant with 1GW Output . With   20   automatic   Production-Lines,   the   Line-Mirrors   for   the   projected   PowerPlant   could   have   been   set   up   in   4 years. With 40 automatic Production-Lines in only 2 Years. After a Power-Plant has been built, the complete Production is set up on the next Construction Site. The construction of huge Fresnel solar fields is made possible by the production on site without any problems.
The most fantastic Feature of Fresnel-Technology is the formation of gigantic Sun protected Areas under the Mirror-Fields.
The Sun protected areas under the Sun-Mirrors can be used for infinite things: New Home for Millions of Refugees Greenhouses for the cultivation of food, irrigated with self-produced Fresh-Water. Cattle breeding and much more besides
Of particular importance is the opportunity to locate Energy intensive Companies, such as: Any kind of Server-Farm Cement-Manufacturer Glass-Manufacturers and Processors Aluminium-Production and Processing and many more. This is where the new Jobs are created that the Refugees need for their Integration. For the Refugees a new Chance of a new Home and a Life in Dignity and Prosperity. For the Industry, a Place with reliable Energy-Production at reasonable Prices for ALL TIME.
Thermo-Solar Power Plants System Comparison